Regularly arranged indium islands on glass/molybdenum substrates upon femtosecond laser and PVD processing
F. Ringleb, K. Eylers, Th. Teubner, T. Boeck, C. Symietz, J. Bonse, S. Andree, J. Krüger, B. Heidmann, M. Schmid, and M. Lux-Steiner
A bottom-up approach is presented for the production of arrays of indium islands on a molybdenum layer on glass, which can serve as micro-sized precursors for indium compounds such as copper-indium-gallium-diselenide used in photovoltaics. Femtosecond laser ablation of glass and a subsequent deposition of a molybdenum film or direct laser processing of the molybdenum film both allow the preferential nucleation and growth of indium islands at the predefined locations in a following indium-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. A proper choice of laser and deposition parameters ensures the controlled growth of indium islands exclusively at the laser ablated spots. Based on a statistical analysis, these results are compared to the non-structured molybdenum surface, leading to randomly grown indium islands after PVD.
Applied Physics Letters 2016, Vol. 118, Issue 11